Angle Masonry – More Than Meets the Eye

Most people are familiar with the advantages of masonry as an excellent, cost-effective, and sustainable building material. However, there is a lot more to it than meets the eye! Per code, lintels cannot bear on brick above certain heights in multifamily brick veneer buildings, so shelf angles are installed on each floor. These are more complex things to install!

pro angle masonry

A veneer is a nonstructural facing of brick, stone, or concrete masonry material securely attached to a wall or backing. Pro Angle Masonry Charleston provides the exterior finish for a building and transfers out-of-plane loads for approval. The license may be a masonry wall or a framed backup wall of wood or steel studs for veneers that support out-of-plane loads. For masonry veneers helped out-of-plane, TMS 402-163 requires anchoring the surface to the backing using either wood ties or masonry anchors. Masonry anchors are fastened to the backup wall framing through the sheathing, and wood ties are typically attached directly to the wood framing.

In operative stonemasonry, the builder’s square was an essential tool to verify that the sides of a cut stone were truly square and that they met the square’s “true right angle.” Freemasonry has adopted this symbol as one of its most important and recognized emblems, representing a morality that emphasizes truthfulness, fairness, and adherence to established boundaries. The compass represents a sense of direction and balance and serves as a reminder that Freemasonry’s teachings can help one navigate life’s journey easily.

The height of a brick wall is usually limited to 30 ft from the foundation to the top of the wall or 38 ft from the bottom of a gable to the top of the roof. Brick above these limits must be supported by lintels, provided on each floor where a lintel spans an opening. Depending on the type of construction, lintels may be loose or precast concrete lintels for appearance or galvanized steel lintels for economy.

For masonry above the maximum height limits, a system of shelf angles is required. Shelf angle design is important, and it is recommended that a preconstruction meeting be held to discuss the details of the masonry anchoring system. This meeting can ensure that all parties understand the requirements and expectations, including the condition that a gap be left on the underside of any lipped brick above a shelf angle.

This gap allows insulation to run continuously from the foundation to the floor line, minimizing thermal bridging and improving a building’s energy performance. A hole also makes installing fire-rated flashings at the wall and roof junction easier.

Concrete masonry units contribute strength, durability, fire resistance, energy efficiency, and sound attenuation to wall systems. They are available in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Various finishes and architectural treatments enable masonry to achieve many aesthetic and functional goals. The concrete masonry materials used to construct a structure are selected to achieve the desired performance characteristics.

Brick is a non-load-bearing cladding material that provides a finished exterior to a wall. Veneers transfer out-of-plane loads to the backing wall but do not add to the load-resisting capacity of the wall system. The surface is secured to the backing by lintels or supports attached to noncombustible framing.

An engineer sizes lintels and shelf angles to meet the steel design code requirements, including stiffness, to minimize masonry cracks. They are also designed to limit deflection between support points to l/600 or 0.3. Over openings, the lintels must be supported by a stiff, continuous member intended to limit the deflection of the wall wythe to l/600 or 0.1 in.

Masonry anchors are welded to the lintels or supports and may be corrugated sheet metal, wire, joint reinforcement, or adjustable. Building codes often restrict the use of certain anchor types. See TEK 12-1B, Anchors and Ties for Masonry (ref 9), for additional information on the requirements for anchors.

The vertical run of most Masonry Anchors, whether they are Rod Anchors, sometimes referred to as weld-on wire ties or Slotted Channel anchors, is approximately 5 in. This length was chosen to maximize the likelihood of matching the vertical run of the Masonry Anchor with the height of a mortar joint. The Masonry Anchor should not be tilted at an angle to the vertical as this will decrease the steep run and lessen the likelihood that it will match up with the mortar joint.

Experienced masons have found that they can lay about five times more blocks when working to a mason line than when using only their straightedge. A mason line is any device that can support the mason while laying blocks and ensure that partnerships are straight, plumb, and at the correct height. The corner pole is one type of mason line used in concrete block walls. The mason line should be checked frequently to ensure it is taut and will not pull out during the construction of a long course.

The design of vertical support elements for anchored masonry veneer is critical to minimizing cracking within the surface. Typically, galvanized-steel loose lintels for larger openings are used, while shelf angles (see detail below) are provided at other locations. These components are designed to minimize deflection under uncategorized dead and live loads. They must also be capable of accommodating movement provisions between the backup wall structure and the masonry veneer, which are required by code.

Most professionals are familiar with the need for relief angles to support brick veneer with wood and steel stud-framed walls at certain intervals. These angles, which are welded to the masonry backup wall system, are required per code for cladding over 30 feet in height.

For masonry walls, the frequency of these angles depends on several factors, including the type of masonry used, moisture control, and movement provisions. In addition to the issues mentioned above, these support members must be capable of resisting both the shear and flexure loads applied at these locations.

This is why it is important for structural engineers to carefully consider the construction of these support structures and their placement within a building. It includes determining the proper frequency of these angle supports and ensuring that they are placed in a location that will not interfere with the installation of any interior finishes, such as wood flooring.

To ensure the integrity of these supports, they should be installed with a minimum clearance to the underlying construction of 1/16 inch (1.6 mm). In most cases, this clearance is achieved by using an angle cut to a length equal to the maximum depth of the masonry veneer at that course level.

Additionally, it is critical that the masons properly size the bricks for the last course under the relief angle. In this case, the architectural drawings did not include a gap dimension under the curve, so the masons assumed there was no need to leave a space for thermal expansion. It was a costly mistake that could have been avoided by conducting preconstruction meetings with the team.

Masons perform various technically innovative masonry projects daily, from routine maintenance to rebuilding after a major failure or restoration of a historic structure. Our teams have the knowledge, skill, and staff to complete every project with industry standards met or exceeded for structural viability and aesthetics.

Lintels (or shelf angles) are horizontal supports, usually made of steel in commercial buildings, spanning window or door openings. These are very important to the integrity of the masonry walls. If not properly maintained, the fence will sag or skew, creating a dangerous condition for pedestrians and a risk of falling bricks and debris.

Lintels are often not galvanized in older structures, speeding up deterioration. Over time, they can rust and, if left untreated, will eventually fail, so they need to be periodically checked and replaced. When a lintel fails, it is often the cause of cracking in the brick-and-mortar joints.

The good news is that if the steel is only mildly corrupted, it can be refurbished and re-used, saving an expensive replacement cost. A simple routine check performed by a specialist in masonry restoration every 2-3 years is generally sufficient to detect deterioration and determine whether the steel is viable for continued use.

Relief angles are also critical to the overall structural stability of brick veneer wall systems. They must be provided per code for wood and steel stud wall construction at certain intervals. Often, these are omitted during installation as contractors assume they are not needed. This assumption needs to be corrected, and the resulting failure of these crucial supports can be disastrous.

Choosing A Reputable Plumber

A plumbing professional is a professional tradesman who specializes in maintaining and installing plumbing systems in domestic plumbing, drainage, and potable water systems. 


Plumber work closely with homeowners and other organizations to provide safety, efficiency, reliability, and value for money by ensuring that all aspects of the plumbing system are functioning properly. Most plumbers have access to state-of-the-art equipment and will have a comprehensive knowledge of plumbing supplies and plumbing tools. A qualified plumber will also have extensive experience working in their profession.

If you are considering hiring a plumber for a plumbing job, it’s important to ensure that the person you hire has the correct qualifications and experience. Before hiring a plumber, look for advice from your local plumbing supplier and the plumber’s references.

Plumbing jobs should be completed quickly and efficiently. Although many plumbers may use the same plumbing tools on every job, they may not always have the necessary tools available to complete the job quickly. For example, some plumbers may use basic tools when tackling larger jobs but may not have the latest tools to deal with smaller jobs such as replacing a water pipe. By using the correct plumbing supplies and tools, a plumber can help reduce the overall cost of the project.

It’s a good idea to make an initial estimate of the total cost of the plumbing job. Although the exact cost of plumbing jobs may vary, a plumber should be able to provide you with a written estimate before the work commences. This estimate should include all material costs. Requesting a copy of the contractor’s licensing and insurance certificate from any local building and fire authority is also advisable.

Before hiring a plumber to do a plumbing job, check their references and ensure that they are licensed to do the required work. Some plumbers won’t show up on time, which can lead to delays in completing your work. To avoid this problem, ask for recommendations at work and in the area. Also, if you need plumbing services from a specific plumbing company, check that the company is licensed and bonded. so that the work you pay for is done according to industry standards.

Plumbers can charge a different amount for their services based on whether they work on a commercial or residential property, so it’s worth asking to see how much each service will cost for a home-based plumbing project before deciding which plumbing companies to choose. and their price range.

Although plumbing jobs are not difficult, they do take time and often need to be carried out by qualified professionals. By hiring a plumber, you will be able to get your project completed promptly. The right plumbing company will get your plumbing done quickly and give you peace of mind.

Plumbing problems can cause damage to buildings and can also cause health hazards for residents. If the problem you’re facing isn’t a problem that’s easy to fix, the problem may need to be dealt with by a plumber. A plumber is skilled in addressing plumbing issues and will know the best way to treat the issue from start to finish.

You’ll need to select a reputable plumber for a project such as installing new plumbing. Make sure the plumber has a good reputation in the area, and is a member of the National Plumbers Federation. It’s worth looking for references and checking with your local building and fire authority to find out if they require licensing of their plumbing services.

When selecting a plumber, it’s also worth ensuring that the plumber has good references. By speaking with friends and family, you may find that one company that comes highly recommended. you can contact them and find out if they have a history of satisfactory results.

Make sure the plumber is experienced and has the experience, as you want to ensure the company’s rates are reasonable. There are a few things to look out for, such as the quality of their work and the safety of the plumber’s tools.

Suppose you are worried that your plumber is too expensive. Plumbing is something that we all have to deal with at one point or another, and you may want to call a plumber now to get the clog fixed before it becomes more complicated. In that case, many companies online offer free estimates for clog repairs, so you can get a more affordable estimate and get your drain or septic tank working again.

Winning Multi-level Marketing Tips And Tricks You Must Read

If you are looking for a new way to earn money, multi-level marketing may be just what you need. It can be a great way to earn a solid income by taking charge of your own career. To get started in this exciting field, just use the advice in this article.

Practice transparent communication with your downline. Holding back information is dishonest and will not lead to trust. It is very important that the members of your downline feel they can trust you and that you have their best interests at heart. Even if your team members have not ever met you and only know you virtually, you must strive to be honest, trustworthy and supportive. If your team members don’t trust you, you will never have success with MLM.

Be ethical when you do multi-level marketing. There are many people that work in this type of marketing that are dishonest and have unethical sales tactics. No matter what kind of pressure you’re under to succeed in this marketing, try to run an honest business. This can easily make you stand out from the rest.

If you have a multi-level marketing business with a focus on product parties, make sure to book a minimum of three parties at every event. Before walking away from each event, try to schedule at least three more parties. Doing this will ensure that your business grows rather than just sustain itself.

Don’t push away people in your personal life by overwhelming them with business talk. Of course, sharing products with friends and family is perfectly acceptable. Just try to avoid pushing too hard and too quickly into your inner circle to build your customer base. Your relationships may be strained if you seem to be pushy.

Upon completing this article, you should have all of the information that you need to get started in multi-level marketing. With this advice, you can identify real opportunities and avoid being ensnared by any scams. Keep these tips in mind as you get started so that you can enjoy the fruits of success.

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How to Insulate Your Home With Spray Foam

When insulating your home with spray foam, there are several concerns you should know. It can off-gas toxic chemicals into a newly constructed home, especially if the spray foam is used on smaller jobs. It’s also important to remember that homes built from shipping containers or tiny houses often don’t have ventilation systems, and a concrete basement won’t allow off-gassing. Read on for tips and advice to make your home as healthy as possible.

spray foam

While the advantages of spray foam insulation are undeniable, the downsides should be discussed first. Despite its many benefits, spray foam construction is not for amateur builders. The process is complex and requires expert supervision, so hiring a professional¬†spray foam insulation Houston¬†is advisable. Depending on the size of the project, the contractor will need to perform a small number of steps, which can include assessing your home’s structural integrity, removing existing insulation, and modifying the roof.

The main difference between closed cell and open cell spray foam is their density. The closed cell type is more expensive than the open cell variety, but provides the same air-sealing effect. It doesn’t soak up water like a sponge and won’t promote the growth of mold. It also helps reduce noise levels in a home. So, it’s worth comparing open-cell and closed-cell spray foam before making a decision.

If cost is a concern, you should choose a high-quality insulation product. Unlike fiberglass, spray foam provides the best value, providing top-tier thermal performance and low energy bills. However, if you’re on a budget, fiberglass may be the more affordable option. But you’ll still be better off with fiberglass. This type of insulation is often superior to fiberglass, but it doesn’t have as many benefits. A good example of how spray foam is better than fiberglass insulation is its insulating power.

If your budget isn’t quite as big as you’d like, you can opt for a spray foam insulation that’s less dense. The high density foam is usually used for high-performance applications, such as in the construction industry, where you need insulation in cold climates. In addition to its high insulating value, spray foam is also very easy to install. There are three types of polyurethane foam, each with different R-values.

Generally, spray foam is used in basements, crawl spaces, overhangs, knee walls, and bonus rooms. These areas are particularly susceptible to drafts, so a good option for insulating a basement is a combination of closed-cell and open-cell spray foam. It’s important to consult an experienced professional before deciding on the type of foam that you want to use, as a wrong choice can cause structural issues and lead to mold and rot.

Regardless of your needs, a spray foam insulation is a great way to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. You can even apply it on top of insulation in a garage or on a concrete slab. Unlike loose-fill insulation, it doesn’t need to be glued into place. This makes it a flexible, efficient option that can be used for a variety of applications. The spray foam insulation is an excellent way to add insulation to a garage or other space, and it is much more durable than regular loose-fill products.

When retrofitting an old home, spray foam insulation is a great way to improve energy efficiency and comfort. Since spray foam is not recommended in main walls, it must be installed by a professional. If you decide to use this insulation, make sure to consider the cost of hiring a professional. Some insulation companies require that you hire a certified technician. This can save you a lot of money over the life of the project, as well as reduce your utility bills.

The R-Value of a material measures its resistance to temperature change. The higher the R-Value, the more effective the insulating qualities of the material. Each type of spray foam has its own R-Value. The R-value of cellulose is approximately 3.3 to 3.7 per inch. Depending on the thickness of the foam, you might need to consider a different type of spray foam. Intumescent paints are applied to basements, crawlspaces, and drywall to provide protection. The cost for this is between $1.40 and $1.50 per square foot.

Understanding the Role of Business Finance

business finance

Business finance is a general term used to describe things concerning the study, development, management, and allocation of financial resources. The field of business finance has many different subtopics, each with its focus. Within business finance there are five main areas: creditor’s business risk, business valuation, business capital, business operations, and credit risk. Other topics fall under the broader umbrella of business finance, such as working capital management, merchant banking, venture capital, government business loans, and nonrecourse capital. In this article, we will discuss the topics in detail.

Business finance is an essential tool for businesses to plan for and manage their future. Without proper business finance planning, businesses can find themselves facing financial issues in the future that they may be unable to overcome. Therefore, thorough knowledge of business finances is a necessary step for businesses to build, strengthen, and grow.

The first topic that we will discuss in this article is about business finance basics, which include concepts like cash flow, cost of capital, and lending. These concepts are crucial to the successful management of short-term finances for any business, especially small businesses. In this sense, we are talking about the financial management of your company’s assets and liabilities.

Cash flow is the key concept of business finance. Cash flow is essentially the process by which an entity makes money on its investments, even if those investments turn out to be unsuccessful. Therefore, the goal of all good business finance is to ensure that your company makes money from its investments, even when you’re not getting ready to pay the money back to investors (a risk management concept). This concept is closely related to the concept of cost of capital. Both concepts are very important tool for business finance.

Another aspect of business finance is identifying the risks associated with your chosen business model. Risk management involves making sure that your company doesn’t face a number of challenges that could lead to financial losses. As an example, suppose that you own and operate a business that manufactures medical devices. You should have a financial plan that will help you identify problems that might arise in the manufacturing process, as well as problems that may occur with raw materials that you need to use. Proper risk management will help you avoid the risk of financial loss.

A financial statement is basically a summary of all the business finance information that has been generated by the end of the year. All the financial statements that we discussed above fall under the statement of cash flows. This means that the statement of cash flows gives you -or rather allows you to see how effective your working capital is. In a nutshell, the working capital refers to money that you currently have or that you expect to have in the near future. It basically represents your capacity to finance short-term debts. Your cash flow model should ensure that your working capital remains sufficient to support your short-term business needs.

In conclusion, we saw that one of the most important tools when it comes to business finance is a good financial management plan. A good financial plan will allow investors to make investment decisions while also minimizing their risk. The next thing that you should remember is that, if you are serious about getting involved in business finance, it is absolutely essential that you work with a qualified professional. A qualified professional can help you obtain the best financing options for your business depending on your specific financial needs and expectations. If you would like more information about how you can work with qualified professionals who can help you get started with your business finance options, feel free to contact us.

We are members of the Professional Association of Business Finance. As a member of PABF, you will be able to access valuable information and resources that will help you understand the role of business finance and how you can go about making sure that your cash flow remains strong. To find out more information about PABF and how you can become a member, log on to our website. You will find valuable information about making sure your business has the best opportunity for long-term funding.

Another Good Reason To Hire A Piano Mover

If you have grand piano movers in your area that you regularly contact for help, there are a few things that you should know about them. The first is that they are professionals. Professionals will always have the latest, safest moving methods and equipment to ensure that their job is done right the first time around. They will also know to perform any specialized work on your piano or other pieces of furniture while ensuring the safety of your belongings.

One of the most important things that you should know about professional piano mover is that they will never move your piano illegally. This is because the laws regarding piano moving are precise, and a professional piano mover will be aware of them. If they know that moving pianos is against the law, that they could get in trouble for it, or that they could hurt you in some way when moving them, they won’t do it.

A professional piano mover understands that another good thing to do during a move is to ensure that everything is in order and as safe as possible. This means that they carefully inspect every inch of your home to ensure that nothing is broken or damaged. In fact, they’ll take it upon themselves to even check to make sure that your piano isn’t damaged enough to need another good repair job later. For instance, if your piano is leaning all over the place and it is really starting to look dangerous, they’ll either re-stretch it properly so it can sit level and in proper placement, or they’ll use stabilizers to put it back into proper position.

Another good thing that professional piano movers will do is to move your piano to a place where it is far safer. For instance, they will not move an upright piano by lugging it up on a flatbed truck as some amateur movers would. Instead, they would use special equipment that allows them to lift the piano using only its frame and then slide it onto the truck. Then, they’ll use cranes to lift the piano into place while using special hoists to lower it gently to the ground. When the piano is finally on the truck, the crane will be lowered so that it can easily lift it to the ground again.

Professionals like these also know how to move smaller upright pianos safely. This is something you might forget when you are moving your upright piano or even when you are moving your piano to a friend’s house. For one thing, pianos that weigh any more than twenty pounds should never be driven unassisted. They must be handled with special moving equipment such as dollies or specially designed slings that secure the weight and be lifted and moved with less stress. Another problem that can occur when handling larger upright pianos is that the piano’s bottom might get damaged if there is insufficient space to get underneath it safely and securely.

If you decide to move a grand piano by yourself, one of the problems you will face is the complexity of moving it. Unlike upright pianos, the larger and heavier a piano is, the more complicated the moving process will be. For one thing, you need a good set of tools for this job. Using old-fashioned dollies or simply using non-skid blankets may not be the safest way to move a big piano.

Safety is important when handling an upright piano, and therefore, moving it yourself might not be a good idea. The piano itself is heavy and unstable, and moving it by yourself could cause some serious injuries. Also, the weight of the extra piano furniture can seriously hurt someone who isn’t used to being so heavy. It is best to hire Piano Mover Orlando to do this type of move for you. They will take special training to perform this move, so you will benefit from having someone in the profession working with you every step of the way.

Even though moving an upright piano is simple, remember that you should still follow all safety precautions while moving it. Always be careful when using dollies, and never leave the piano on the ground if you have a dolly. If you are unsure about moving a piano on your own, call a professional piano mover to do this for you.